Water treatment requirements for university, commercial and hospital facilities typically include the treatment of makeup water to low and medium pressure boilers for the production of steam and the chemical treatment of boiler feedwater, boiler water and steam using oxygen scavengers, boiler deposit control additives, and neutralizing amines or ammonia. A treatment issue requiring particular attention at these facilities is the potential for adverse health effects from elevated concentrations of neutralizing amines (morpholine, cyclohexylamine, and diethylaminoethanol) in indoor air that is humidified by steam treated with these compounds.


Other treatment requirements at these facilities include the chemical treatment of open evaporative and closed loop cooling water systems using corrosion, scale, deposit and biofouling inhibitors. (return)